Nilkanth arrived at Manasarovar in February 1793. During 1936-1937 a sannyasi called Swami Pranavananda spent one year at Manasarovar and another 16 months in 1943-44. He stayed through the entire winter to observe and experience the conditions in Manasarovar. To understand Nilkanth's stay it would be interesting to learn from Swami Pranavananda's scientific study.59 He stayed equipped with all the necessities of clothes, food, fuel, medicines and wrote his experiences.
Prior to the onset of winter lamas or monks from eight Buddhist monasteries by the banks of Manasarovar migrate to lower regions. During winter Manasarovar becomes harsh and lifeless.
Swami Pranavananda describes his stay in winter, "When the author (Swami Pranavananda) had sojourned on the shores of Manasarovar in 1936-37, winter had already begun to make itself felt from the middle of September. From October 1, onward up to May 14, 1937, the minimum temperature persistently remained below the freezing point. The maximum temperature during that year was 670F (19.50C) on July 19, in the verandah of the room and the minimum was -18.50F (-280C). On February 18, it was so cold that the sputum of a person standing in the balcony would reach the ground as solid ice. The lowest maximum temperature was 20F (-17.70C) on February 16. The maximum temperature remained below the freezing point for nearly 31/2 months; and on several occasions even at 12 in the noon the temperature would be 100F (-12.20C). Of course the winter of 1936-37 was unusually severe in the Kailas-Manasarovar Region...
"Occasional snowfalls began from the second week of September, but never more than 11/2 feet on the shores of Manasarovar, although there were several feet of heavy snowfall round Kailas. Tempestuous winds began to howl in an ever-increasing manner from the first of November. From the middle of December, water near the edges of the Lake began to freeze to a width of about two feet. From the 21st water towards the middle of the Lake froze here and there to a thickness of 2 to 4 inches and sheets of ice about 50 to 100 yards in edge were drifting towards the shores. Cyclonic gales from the Mandhata peaks were giving rise to huge oceanic waves in the Lake roaring and thundering aloud...
"It was Monday, December 28, 1936... For over a mile from the shores, the waters in the Lake were frozen into milk-white ice all around. It was an unforgettable memorable sight - the middle of the Lake picturesquely with its unfrozen deep blue waters quite calm and serene, reflecting the Kailas and the snowy cap of the Ponri peak and the resplendent rays of the morning sun...
"By December 30, i.e. in full three days, the entire Lake (300 ft. deep and 518 sq. km.) was frozen like the mythological ocean of curds. But curiously enough Sven Hedin in his 'Trans-Himalaya' reports that the whole of Manasarovar freezes over in an hour!"60
Swami Pranavananda also notes that in the winter of 1944 the Lake was frozen in only three days from January 9 to 12. The surface of Manasarovar was frozen with ice that was two to six feet thick near the banks. The nearby lake called Rakshas Tal, 362.5 sq. km in size, is also completely frozen in winter.61
On 28 December 1936, when Swami Pranavanandaji came out of his meditation at 7.00 am onto the terrace of the monastery he lived in, he saw the frozen Manasarovar. He felt an instant thrill and lost consciousness for some time. He writes his experience in the third person, referring himself to 'he', "...stunned by the sight of the Holy Kailas on the north-west, piercing into the pitch-blue sky and dyed in amber robes of the early morning sun (which had not yet reached other places) and overlooking the Holy Lake in all majesty and dignity, bewitching even the inanimate creation. Not even a single sheep or lamb in the sheep-yard bleated. While he (Swami Pranavananda) was musing over the splendour and over-powering beauty of the Holy Mount, it rapidly changed several robes of various colours and hues and ultimately decided upon the usual perpetual silver garment, which was reflecting in the clear and calm blue mirror of the mid-Lake. Dazzled at the sight, he lowered his eyes towards the Lake that was just in front of him. The very first sight of the Holy Lake made him forget himself and even the Lake herself for some time, and by the time he could see the Lake again, the sun was sufficiently high on the eastern horizon... Oh! How happy he was! He utterly fails to describe the bliss he enjoyed and the mystic charm of the enchanting Lake. Tears of joy trickled down the cheeks, only to be frozen on the parapet. There was pin-drop silence everywhere. Like the eternal silence of Nirvana there was perfect stillness all around. What creature could there be on the face of earth which would not feel and become one with that sublime serenity of silence of the Almighty? He leaned against the parapet of the terrace and stood dumb-struck by the most enrapturing splendour and lustre of the sublime serenity of the spiritual aura of the two holiest places on the face of the earth. How fortunate he felt himself to be under such a wonderful spell! Then he was lost within himself. At about 10 am he was roused by the hailing shouts of the villagers..."62
Both the Manas and the Rakshas freeze into pure white opaque ice in the beginning, and within a month or so they become transparent greenish blue.
The freezing and thawing of manasarovar
When Nilkanth arrived in February at Manasarovar, after his parikrama of Mt. Kailas, the icing process of the lake was nearing completion. When he left in the first week of May the lake had started thawing. Let us now see the conditions of the lake during that season to allow us to understand what Nilkanth had gone through.
During the freezing process of the lake Swami Pranavananda writes that from 1 January the occasional rumblings begin. Then for a month, from 7 January, the sounds are more pronounced and terrible. Swami Pranavananda notes that when it freezes the level of the Lake falls 12 inches below the ice. The ice under its own weight cracks with big sounds and fissures are formed. These fissures or chasms are three to six feet broad, portioning the lake into a number of divisions. The water in the fissure then freezes in a day and breaks. Then the water beneath it freezes and pushes the blocks of ice up which pile up loosely over the chasms or cement themselves to either side of the fissures. These eruptions and fissures also form along the shores of the Lake. No one dares to walk on the frozen Manasarovar because of the fear of falling inside the lake.63
Swami Pranavananda walked for over a mile into the lake. Then suddenly he came face to face with a big fissure-eruption that piled ice to a height of five feet. Since it was so sudden he crossed the fissure at great risk and with tremendous difficulty.64
Swami Pranavananda says that a month before the thawing of Manasarovar the sight is more fascinating than the freezing of the Lake. He writes, "A month before thawing sets in, along the west and south coasts, at the mouths of the Ding tso and the Tag, ice melts and forms a fine and picturesque blue border, 100 yards to half a mile in breadth, to the milk-white garment of the Lake. Here and there are seen pairs of graceful swans majestically sailing on the perfectly smooth surface of that border setting up small ripples on either side of their course. Especially in the mornings they do not play in the waters or engage themselves in 'belly-filling' but sail calmly towards the sun with half-closed eyes in a meditative mood and at the same time enjoying a good sun-bath. One such sight is a hundred times more effective, impressive, and sufficient to put one into a meditative mood than a series of artificial sermons, meditation classes, or got-up speeches from a pulpit. So it is that our ancestors and Rishis used to keep themselves in touch with Mother Nature to have a glimpse of the Grand Architect."65
The sounds of ice breaking are more intense and frightening in early spring (in May). Swami Pranavananda writes, "About 11 days before breaking, the disturbance in the Lake becomes most intense between 6 and 10 am and terrible sounds, rumblings, groanings, crashes resembling the roars of lions and tigers, trumpets of elephants, blowing up of mountains with dynamites, and firing of cannon are heard. One can hear notes of all sorts of musical instruments and cries of all animals. The agitation and the sounds are, in all probability, due to the ice tearing itself off and breaking asunder both in the fissures, and minor lines of cleavage, for, the chasms in the main fissures are seen 50 to 80 feet broad with blue waters."66
Even the most intrepid people would lose courage and heart amidst nature's fury in Kailas and Manasarovar. The sheer isolation and intolerable circumstances that Nilkanth put up with is beyond imagination.
After surpassing and hurdling over nature's harshest challenges what did Nilkanth do when he reached the shores of Manasarovar? In Shri Haricharitramrut Sagar, Adharanand Swami (or Siddhanand Swami) writes that Nilkanth had bathed in the freezing waters of Manasarovar.67 He bathed to offer his tribute to the residing deities of Mt. Kailas - Shri Shiv and Parvatiji. He bathed also to grant the fruits of those who had and those who will in future perform austerities and come on a pilgrimage here.
Nilkanth spent five days at Manasarovar as described in the Shri Haricharitramrut Sagar. But what did he do during that time?
In those times the Hindus and Buddhists considered it sacred to circumambulate Manasarovar and Mt. Kailas. In 1820 James Baillie Frazer writes, "...to journey round the Kailash mountain is reputed to be of as much efficacy as a pilgrimage to Loreto, or to Mecca, was to a Roman Catholic of former days, or to a Mussalman of the present... A journey round it which is reckoned a very necessary religious exercise..."68
In 1792, when Nilkanth pilgrimaged Manasarovar, two sannyasis, Purangiri and Purana Poori, had also performed the pilgrimage. They had described that the parikrama is a six day journey.69 Other pilgrims have completed it in five days. Nilkanth stayed for five days in Manasarovar. It seems that with the number of days he stayed there, Nilkanth, who was inclined towards pilgrimage, must have circumambulated the Manasarovar. The circular parikrama is 87 km.
Shri Haricharitramrut Sagar notes that Nilkanth returned on Akha Trij, 13 May 1793 from his pilgrimage from Manasarovar to Badrinath.70 Nilkanth started his pilgrimage from Badrinath, then went to Joshimath, Badrivan, Manasarovar and returned back to Badrinath six months later. Out of the six months, as mentioned earlier, he spent three months in Badrivan and the remaining three months in the Manasarovar region.
Sannyasi Purana Poori, who had pilgrimaged in 1792 - the same year as Nilkanth, writes that it takes about ten days to journey from Badrinath to Kailas-Manasarovar.71 Swami Tapovanji has described the same number of days for the journey. So Nilkanth spent twenty days in going to Manasarovar and coming back to Badrinath, which are a part of his three-month sojourn in the Manas region.
How did Nilkanth live and survive during his 21/2 months stay there? What did he do and where did he stay? And what did he eat for three months?
Do Nilkanth's descriptions of the royal swans of Manasarovar and of the entire region agree with recorded facts? The following research answers these questions.
How Did Nilkanth Survive?
How did Nilkanth survive in temperatures of -280C and at an altitude of 15,000 ft. when no human being could survive without proper food, clothes and equipment? To answer this we need to consider two researches.
In the 18 April 2002 issue of Harvard University Gazette an article by William J. Cromie, 'Meditation Changes Temperatures', gives details about some interesting experiments conducted by Dr. Herbert Benson. Dr. Benson is an associate professor at the Harvard Medical School and President of Mind/Body Medical Institute at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston. He observed that under frigid conditions no human could survive, but through meditation, Indian yogis and Buddhist monks have spent whole nights. William Cromie writes, "Benson and his team studied monks living in the Himalayan mountains, who could by meditation, raise the temperature of their fingers and toes by as much as 17 degrees.
"In 1985, the meditation team made a video of monks drying cold, wet sheets with body heat. They also documented monks spending a winter night on a rocky ledge 15,000 feet high in the Himalayas. The sleep-out took place in February on the night of the winter full moon when temperatures reached -17.70C. Wearing only woollen or cotton shawls, the monks promptly fell asleep on the rocky ledge. They did not huddle together and the video shows no evidence of shivering. They slept until dawn then walked back to their monastery."72
Dr. Benson, who has been studying the effects of meditation for 20 years, said that meditation decreases metabolism, breathing rate, heart rate and blood pressure.73
From Dr. Benson's research on yoga we can understand how Nilkanth must have faced temperatures of -280C. Survival in such extreme cold through yoga is a scientific fact. This all the more resolves the doubts of sceptics and enquiring minds.
The interesting fact is that Nilkanth mastered Ashtang Yoga in the Himalayan jungle a year after his pilgrimage to Kailas-Manasarovar. So, Nilkanth must have been a born yogi to have survived the extremities of cold.
Another interesting experience is that of Shri Tarun Vijay, a renowned writer in Hindi and editor of Panchajanya magazine. In 1992, during his pilgrimage to Kailas-Manasarovar, he came across a 26-27 year old sannyasi named Swami Vikasanand Giri near Tarchhen. At 15,000 ft. the sannyasi was walking barefoot and wearing ordinary cotton clothes. The shivering editor, Tarun Vijay, and his companions asked him whether he was feeling cold. Swami Vikasanand replied that through practice he did not feel the cold. He said there are certain herbs in Kailas which on eating would make one sweat in the cold.74 Tarun Vijay asked for the herb and after receiving it they continued their parikrama of Kailas. When they had to cross the Dolma Ghat at 18,600 ft. the atmosphere was extremely cold. The chilly winds pierced through their bodies. Due to fatigue and cold their confidence and courage began to ebb. After every two to three steps they had to take a break. Then they remembered the herbs of small white flowers given to them by Swami Vikasanand Giri. Despite doubting the herbs the cold made him take out 10-15 grams of flowers and eat them. Tarun Vijay narrates his experience, that nothing happened immediately. But in half an hour he felt heat in every pore of his body as if he was warming himself by a furnace.75
Could Nilkanth have tried some herbs to keep himself warm? There is no reference to this in any of the books written about him in his times. But it is a fact that such herbs do help people to survive in the intense cold.
Nilkanth's diet in THE Manas Region
Another proof of Nilkanth being a born yogi was his diet. With reference to what he must have eaten in the three months of his Himalayan sojourn we find that "Himalaya had brought him fruits."76 There is no reference in the Swaminarayan Sampraday's texts other than this. Nilkanth must have lived on fruits, leaves and roots that he found on his way. But are there any edible plants in the Manasarovar region? Not in winter when Nilkanth was present.
According to Swami Pranavananda's research there are no fruit growing trees or plants in this region. However, south of Manasarovar-Kailas towards Thhuling Math a wild plant called jimbu grows in abundance. The local Tibetans eat it as onions. A thorny plant called tarua bears a fruit that is used to make chutney. The Tibetan garlic, bathua, is also used by the locals. Around Manasarovar a variety of edible mushrooms grow and are readily consumed. Jira, a wild plant, is used in eating items. Generally, Tibetans are meat-eaters because the variety and quantity of edible plants are sparse.77
For Nilkanth, garlic, onions and meat were a taboo, so there was nothing available for him to eat. And since he travelled in winter there were no plants or herbs available! Then what did Nilkanth eat during his pilgrimage to Manasarovar and Kailas!
Let us see the words he said to the priest of Badrinath on returning back from his pilgrimage on Akha Trij, six months later, "I ate food here the last time, and now after six months of pilgrimage I am eating food here again."78
It is amazing that Nilkanth sustained his existence without food in such harsh and extreme circumstances.
The Royal Swans and Nature's Beauty at Manasarovar
From the Pauranic times the royal swans of Manasarovar have been a subject of great curiosity for Indians. Did Nilkanth see the swans at Manasarovar?
Yes! The Shri Haricharitramrut Sagar says that Nilkanth saw the swans swim in Manasarovar.79 The year and season in which Nilkanth pilgrimaged to Manasarovar was the coldest time of the year. All around there was snow and ice. When the temperature of the verandah outside the rooms was -280C, how could there be any signs of birds outside!
Swami Pranavananda says, "In connection with swans it may be noted that there are three varieties of aquatic birds in Manas Region. The first is called ngangba in Tibetan, which to the mind of the author, corresponds to the traditional swan... It is about 30 inches in length and is called savan in the United Provinces. (This is the bar-headed goose of Jerdon). The great poet Kalidas must have seen some stray Siberian mute swan or the whooper swan in Kashmir and combined its description with that of the Tibetan ngangba and gave a beautiful poetic description of the Royal Swans or Raja Hansas in his celebrated Kavya, the Meghaduta, as hailing from the Manasa-saras. Having known this convention of the modern ornithologist and the Indian ornithologists and poets there should be no objection in calling the Manas-ngangba, the swan.
"The second variety of bird, called ngaru-serchung is deep or almond-brown in complexion... This is the brahminy duck. The third variety is chakarma and is deep grey or like a pigeon in colour. It is the gull."80
In support of Nilkanth having seen the swans we can see further in Swami Pranavananda's notes, "On January 18 when the minimum temperature in the verandah of the room was 20F (-16.6 0C), and when the entire Lake was covered with ice 2 to 6 feet thick, two scores of brahminy ducks were merrily swimming and playing in the pool and on the ice nearby. This makes the author conclusively believe that there must be some hot springs in the bed of the Manasarovar."81
Swami Pranavananda says that a month before the melting of Manasarovar begins on the blue border of water, which is 100 yards to half a mile in breadth, graceful swans swim creating ripples on either side. "Especially in the mornings they do not play in the waters or engage themselves in 'belly-filing' but sail calmly towards the sun with half-closed eyes in a meditative mood and at the same time enjoying a good sun-bath..."82
Nilkanth saw the swans as noted in the Shri Haricharitramrut Sagar, "There were many swans on the shores. They sang beautifully. It seemed as if the sages were meditating."83
Ramsharan Vidyarthi, the Hindi scholar, says, "In reality the swans are the undisputed kings of the Lake. No one could challenge this right of theirs."84
The Shri Haricharitramrut Sagar says that Nilkanth saw many other birds.85 Swami Pranavanandaji writes that there were brahminy ducks, geese, gulls, herons and others.86
In 1992 Tarun Vijay observed pigeons and small birds at Dolma Ghat at 18,600 ft."87
The authenticity of the description in Shri Haricharitramrut Sagar is evident from the above references. The scripture further describes the Manas region in which, "Nilkanth saw a variety of trees here."88
In Tibetan books one finds the description of trees around the Manasarovar.89 In 1792 a sannyasi called Purana Poori notes trees of Bhojpatra on Mt. Kailas.90 Today, one finds small plants scattered by the banks of Manasarovar but there are no trees. In all probability the trees growing at the time of Nilkanth's visit may now have been destroyed in time due to some drastic geographical disturbances or changes.
Swami Pranava-nanda notes the flora of the Manas region, mentioning the fragrant flowering plants and creepers. One such sweet-scented plant is called artemisia, popularly known as davanam, which is used as incense. Due to these fragrant flowers and creepers the air is also laden with its aroma. On the mountain sides of Mt. Kailas many fragrant flowers enthuse the minds of pilgrims.91
Shri Haricharitramrut Sagar also describes the air that Nilkanth experienced at Manasarovar, "The cold fragrant wind flows."92
Nilkanth also saw red lotuses in Manasarovar, but observations of pilgrims and researchers note no existence of them in the Lake. But there are records of other red flowers.93
Where did Nilkanth stay?
With Nilkanth's five-day stay at Manasarovar and twenty-day journey to and from the Lake, where did he spend the remaining two months? Where did Nilkanth stay at Manasarovar? There are no records in the Sampraday's scriptures, but on the basis of some studies we can arrive at several possibilities.
The first possibility is that he could have stayed at one of the Buddhist monasteries or caves near the Lake.
In 1715, a Jesuit priest named Father Desideri had embarked upon a mission to go to the origin of the rivers Sindhu and Ganga. On reaching Manasarovar he observed, "...they (Tibetans) make pilgrimages from time to time to this district and wander round the lake with great devotion."94 But Father Desideri makes no note of any Buddhist monasteries.
But in the 1798 edition of the Anglo-Indian periodical Asiatic Researches article, 'An Account of Two Fakeers' by Mr. Jonathan Duncan gives an account of sannyasi Purana Poori's (of Kashi) adventures in 1792. About his observations on Manasarovar Purana Poori says, "Its circumference is of six days journey and around it are twenty or twenty-five goumaris (religious stations or temples)."95
Is it possible that Nilkanth stayed in these temples? And when Nilkanth visited Manasarovar were there any Buddhist monks in the temples at that time? No information is available in this regard. But it seems that since the Tibetans were meat-eaters Nilkanth would not have stayed in their monasteries and temples.
In 1902, a little over one hundreds years ago, Ramsharan Vidyarthi notes the characteristics of the ancient monasteries that were dotted near Manasarovar, "All around Manasarovar there are Buddhist monasteries. They are known as gumfas, meaning a place of solitude. Here the gumfas are different from each other in many ways; but you find them all dirty because the main diet of the (Buddhist) monks is goat and sheep meat. You find piles of bones spread badly around."96
"Here, the majority of wandering locals survive on meat. Their predominant occupation is tending to yaks, goats and wool-making. Here you find only Buddhist monasteries but no other buildings or houses... These places are full of dirt and darkness."97
With the above mentioned conditions in the monasteries, it seems that Nilkanth, who was a vegetarian and inclined towards non-killing, would not have stayed there. He may have stayed in a cave or under the open sky. Furthermore, Nilkanth could have travelled to other places in the Manas region. What are the other places he could have visited?
Pilgrimage to the Origin of River Saryu
Nilkanth bathed in the holy river Saryu during his childhood years. He knew that the river originated from the Manasarovar region. So, because of his love for the river he had a desire to go to its source. Shri Haricharitramrut Sagar notes that Nilkanth had pilgrimaged to the place of origin of river Saryu.98
But where is the source of river Saryu?
The Skand Puran and other Indian Puranic literature shows that the river Saryu has its source in Manasarovar.99
Sven Hedin, the Swedish explorer, writes in his book Trans-Himalaya, "William Moorcroft was a veterinary surgeon (British). His name is famous in connection with Manasarovar, and his narrative of the journey he undertook with Captain Hearsey in 1812.
"On August 6, 1812, Moorcroft walked along the shore of Manasarovar to Chiu-gompa, and mounted a hill on its southern side. He looked in vain for an outlet. As far as the eye could perceive through the field glass there was no depression between the two lakes (Manasarovar and Rakshas Tal), no interruption in the hills. He sent scouts to the southern shore, and they returned with the news that no drainage stream issued from the Lake."100 So Moorcroft observed no river issuing from the Manasarovar.
In 1765 the German Jesuit father Joseph Tieffenthaler writes that the river Saryu issues from Rakshas Tal (next to Manasarovar), "Besides the large lake Manasarovar and on its west side is the Lanka lake (Rakshas Tal)... This lake, out of which on the west the Saryu River flows, is much smaller than Manasarovar."101
Sannyasi Purana Poori notes that the river Saryu flows from Lunkadh (Rakshas Tal).102
In 1796, four years after Nilkanth's pilgrimage, "...an old pundit named Harvallabh, who was Moorcroft's companion on his journey, assured him before they reached the lake that a watercourse issued from Manasarovar, entered the Rakshas Tal, and left it again on the western shore as the (river) Sutlej."103
However, geographers believe that the reference of river Saryu's origin in the Puran scriptures could be true. They believe that earthquakes cause geographical changes. So the source of river Saryu has shifted away from Manasarovar. Many researches believe that the underground waters of Manasarovar is the subterranean source of river Saryu.
Swami Pranavanandaji, who pilgrimaged to Manasarovar thirty-two times and noted authentic geographical information on the origin of rivers Sindhu, Sutlej, Saryu and Brahmaputra writes, "...the source of the Karnali (Saryu) is in the spring of Mapcha Chungo (near Mt. Mandhata), about 30 miles (48 km) south-east of Manasarovar and the genetic source is in the Lampiya pass."104
Two hundred years ago when Nilkanth pilgrimaged in the Himalayas, he also explored and went to the source of the river Saryu. Going to its source was extremely challenging and full of obstacles. But a determined Nilkanth explored in the biting winter month, reached the source and took a dip in the river Saryu. And further, it is a possibility that Nilkanth may have also gone to the sources of the other three great rivers, namely, Sutlej, Sindhu and Brahmaputra and sanctified them too. The courageous effort of Nilkanth's solitary journey till May in the Manas region to the sources of the four rivers must have been very thrilling and extraordinary.
The Shri Haricharitramrut Sagar notes how the priest of Badrinath was amazed with Nilkanth when he gave an account of his six-month sojourn to the Himalayas.105 If the priest had recorded Nilkanth's narration then it would have proved to be of priceless value and source of inspiration for adventurers, explorers and spiritual seekers.
Nilkanth's pilgrimage was not a fable or a myth. It is a fact and a historic journey. Nilkanth was not an ordinary human being, but the supreme divinity who walked in flesh and blood. His journey to Kailas-Manasarovar, with parallels drawn from the accounts of sannyasis, explorers and modern scientific research, clearly places him in a unique league of his own. His divine charisma is evident from his resolve and effort in realising his mission. Probably, with further research one may come up with more interesting and unknown facts that would make Nilkanth's journey even more amazing to the human mind and heart.
But the fact remains that Nilkanth's intrepid journey to Kailas-Manasarovar was unique and unimaginable. His journey was not only adventurous and courageous but a spiritual and divine exercise for the elevation and good of countless souls. His pilgrimage was rooted in his infinite compassion for humanity and all souls, providing for centuries to come to innumerable aspirants and seekers of truth, the strength and inspiration to bear all types of adversities. He also pilgrimaged to bless all those who had and were engaged in austerities with the fruits of their spiritual endeavours. For this the world will remain forever indebted to Nilkanth, the child yogi!
His Divine Holiness Pramukh Swami Maharaj has inspired the making of a fantastic Imax film on Nilkanth's pilgrimage. The Imax film, Mystic India, reveals the unique persona of Nilkanth and the glory of India. It is the greatest tribute that anyone could pay to Nilkanth's extraordinary journey. Through Pramukh Swami Maharaj's colossal effort and divine blessings in creating the Swaminarayan Akshardham Complex in New Delhi millions of people will throng to see Nilkanth's divine pilgrimage through the Imax film and be able to catch a glimpse of his great, historic life.
59. Swami Pranavananda's scientific study and findings on Kailas and Manas were accepted by the Royal Geographical Society, London, and Survey of India Office which have incorporated them in their maps of 1941 and 1945. His research papers on Manasarovar were published in many scientific journals. The Daily Telegraph newspaper of London honoured him as 'the distinguished Indian Sanyasi - explorer and scientist'. The famous British author, Paul Brunton, has referred to him in his book, A Hermit in the Himalayas.
Swami Pranavananda. Kailas-Manasarovar, 1st ed. Calcutta: S.P. League, Ltd., 1949: 237-239.
60. Swami Pranavananda. Kailas-Manasarovar. p. 27, 28.
61. Swami Pranavananda. Kailas-Manasarovar. p. 28, 30.
62. Swami Pranavananda. Kailas-Manasarovar. p. 28.
63. Swami Pranavananda. Kailas-Manasarovar. p. 29.
64. Swami Pranavananda. Kailas-Manasarovar. p. 29.
65. Swami Pranavananda. Kailas-Manasarovar. p. 35.
66. Swami Pranavananda. Kailas-Manasarovar. p. 35.
67. Swami Shri Siddhanandmuni (also known as Swami Adharanandmuni). Shri Haricharitramrut Sagar. Varanasi: Swami Hariprakash, Pundit Shrinarmadeshwar Chaturvedi, 1972: 2-20-20.
68. Fraser, James Baillie. The Himala Mountains. Delhi: Neeraj Publishing House, 1982: 290.
69. Asiatic Researches, Vol. 5 . Reprinted, New Delhi: Cosmo Publications, p. 44.
70. Swami Shri Siddhanandmuni (also known as Swami Adharanandmuni). Shri Haricharitramrut Sagar. Varanasi: Swami Hariprakash, Pundit Shrinarmadeshwar Chaturvedi, 1972: 373.
71. Duncan, Jonathan. An Account of Two Fakeers, With their Portraits. Asiatic Researches, Vol. 5. Calcutta: Asiatic Society, 1808. Reprinted, New Delhi: Cosmo Publication, 1979: 45.
72. Cromie, William J. 'Meditation changes temperatures: mind controls body in extreme experiments'. Harvard University Gazette, 18 April 2002. Boston, USA.
74. Vijay, Tarun. Kailas-Manasarovar Yatra, Shakshat Shiv se Samvad, 1st ed. Dehradun: Rutvik Publication, 1994: 64.
75. Vijay, Tarun. Kailas-Manasarovar Yatra, Shakshat Shiv se Samvad, p. 79.
76. Swami Adharanandmuni. Shri Haricharitramrut Sagar, 2-20-21.
77. Swami Pranavananda. Kailas-Manasarovar. p. 45.
78. Swami Shri Siddhanandmuni (also known as Swami Adharanandmuni). Shri Haricharitramrut Sagar. Varanasi: Swami Hariprakash, Pundit Shrinarmadeshwar Chaturvedi, 1972: 2-20-23-26.
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